Televangelist Pat Robertson claiming that Haitians made a pact with Satan.
Men make their own history, but they do not make it as they please; they do not make it under self-selected circumstances, but under circumstances existing already, given and transmitted from the past. The tradition of all dead generations weighs like a nightmare on the brains of the living. And just as they seem to be occupied with revolutionizing themselves and things, creating something that did not exist before, precisely in such epochs of revolutionary crisis they anxiously conjure up the spirits of the past to their service, borrowing from them names, battle slogans, and costumes in order to present this new scene in world history in time-honored disguise and borrowed language. Thus Luther put on the mask of the Apostle Paul, the Revolution of 1789-1814 draped itself alternately in the guise of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, and the Revolution of 1848 knew nothing better to do than to parody, now 1789, now the revolutionary tradition of 1793-95. In like manner, the beginner who has learned a new language always translates it back into his mother tongue, but he assimilates the spirit of the new language and expresses himself freely in it only when he moves in it without recalling the old and when he forgets his native tongue.
“Revolutions have to be thorough. You spare the kids – they run off and warn your enemies. If you’re going to take that road, you’d better make up your mind to take it to the end. That is the horror of the thing. It’s all well and good to say that these killings came out of rage. I don’t doubt that to a certain extent they did, but the real horror is that even if they hadn’t, matters would have probably taken the same course. A revolution is either thorough or it’s doomed. Real revolutionaries know that, which is why they have to proceed in cold blood.”
— Eugene Genovese from Nat Turner: A Troublesome Property
CLR James the year The Black Jacobins was first published.
CLR James, The Black Jacobins
Laurent Dubois, Avengers of the New World
Gerald Horne, Confronting Blak Jacobins
Gillo Pontecorvo, Burn!
Lydia Bailey (1947?)
Edward Halperin, White Zombie
doc. Egalitè for All
doc. Aristide and the Endless Revolution
Kimathi Donkor, Caribbean Passion: Haiti 1804
Jacob Lawrence, The Life of Toussaint L’Ouverture
Black Dawn (film)
Aime Cesaire, The Tragedy of King Christophe
Orson Welles, Voodoo Macbeth
Eugene O’Neill, Emperor Jones
CLR James, Toussaint L’Ouverture: A Play in Three Acts
Alejo Carpentier, The Kingdom of This World
Madison Smart Bell, All Soul’s Rising (Haitian Trilogy)
Leonora Sansay, Secret History, or The Horrors of Santo Domingo
Nalo Hopkins, Midnight Robber
Arna Bontemps, Black Thunder
Syl Cheney-Coker, Sacred River: A Novel
Susan Buck-Morss, Hegel, Haiti, and Universal History
Peter Hallward, Damming the Flood
Alfred Métraux, Voodoo in Haiti