Category Archives: History and Culture

Formerly known as Cultural Periods and Styles

Gamin (303)

gamin, n. and adj.
Brit.   /ˈɡamɪn/,    /ɡaˈmã/,  U.S.   /ˈɡæmən/
Frequency (in current use):
Origin: A borrowing from French. Etymon: French gamin.
Etymology: < French gamin (1805; 1803 in the more general meaning ‘young boy’; 1765 denoting a glassmaker’s assistant), further etymology uncertain.
A suggestion that the French word is a borrowing (with remodelling after words in -in -ine suffix4) < German regional (Alemannic) Gammel uproar, row (or a related word in the same family) is very uncertain.

N.E.D. (1898) gives only the pronunciation (gamæṅ) /ɡamæ̃/.
A. n.

  A neglected boy who has been left to run about the streets; a street urchin, a guttersnipe; (more generally) a streetwise or impudent child. Also in extended use.
Originally in French and French-speaking contexts.
1832   Leicester Chron. 16 June   The coach..was being drawn by a mob of gamins along the quay.
1840   Thackeray Paris Sketch Bk. I. 12   There are the little gamins mocking him.
1864   F. W. Robinson Mattie x. 25   One Kent Street gamin out on business and dodging the policeman behind a Patent Safety.
1873   C. M. Yonge Pillars of House (1880) I. vi. 134   ‘Our little gamin has the most of the Good Samaritan in him,’ said Mr. Audley.
1907   ‘N. Blanchan’ Birds Every Child should Know viii. 108   How wonderfully that saucy little gamin, the English sparrow, has adjusted himself to this new land!
1927   Amer. Mercury July 291/1   The diapered young saint..approached a crowd of gamins playing in the gutter.
1977   N. Shepherd Living Mountain viii. 57   A voice by my side asked: ‘Is this the way to Ben MacDhui?’ and looking down I saw what at first glance I took to be a street gamin of eleven.
2006   New Yorker 25 Sept. 106/1,   I would have grown up in unquestioned Orthodoxy, tough little cocksure fisticuffian gamin.
B. adj.

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Sound (220/303/415)

Sound Editing

The sound editor is responsible for assembling everything you hear on screen — the dialog, the foley, ADR (automated dialog replacement), walla (crowd noises), incidental sounds (paper rustling), atmosphere (wind, a distant tugboat) and sound effects (engines revving, gunshots). Sound editors make audio choices; sometimes they tap into a library of sounds, sometimes they make their own recordings, and sometimes they fabricate sounds that are completely new.

Sound Mixing

This is one of the final stages of post-production. The sound elements have been prepared/gathered in isolation, and the sound mixer takes all of these (plus the music score), and determines the appropriate levels, judging which elements the audience needs to hear. In other words, after the sound editor has assembled what the audience hears, the sound mixer determines how they hear it. The mixer decides when to de-emphasize atmosphere sounds and prioritize music, for example.

A Primer on Oscar’s Sound Editing and Mixing Categories

A competent sound analysis will also remark upon the character of sounds (ex. rough, muted, busy, etc.).