Could you explain again how false consciousness or ideology arise spontaneously?
Page 31. Machiavelli: “‘[F]or the general mass of men are satisfied with appearances… and many times are moved by the things which appear to be rather than by the things that are.”‘
Follow Hawkes’s argument down the rest of that page. Short answer: by “mistaking the second nature for the first nature.”
Luther effectively makes the same argument by noting that when religious custom is fetishized it takes on a significance greater than its true significance. Mere human practice is identified with divine power.
Bacon takes the spontaneous/ deliberate divide further, producing a “fully secular theory of false consciousness.” What is the main difference between the first three and the final fourth kinds of idols? Where do the idols of the tribe, cave, and marketplace come from?
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